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Constantinos Yiallourides

Biography Dr Constantinos Yiallourides is Research Leader in Law of the Sea at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) where he leads the Institute's Watts Programme of research, training, and events in the law of the sea and global ocean governance. He is also Lecturer in International Law at Macquarie University, School of Law, Sydney. He was previously lecturer in international law at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, post-doctoral researcher in energy law…

Climate Change+2

Maria Tymofienko

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Courts and Tribunals+1

Irene Pietropaoli

Biography Dr Irene Pietropaoli is a Senior Fellow in Business and Human Rights and joined BIICL in October 2018. She conducts research on corporate human rights due diligence, other aspects of implementation of the UN Guiding Principles on business and human rights, and legislation on modern slavery in supply chain. Irene is also leading BIICL's work on Artificial Intelligence  and its links with business and human rights. Prior to joining BIICL, Irene worked with international organisations…

AI and Data Worlds+3

Yarik Kryvoi

Professor Yarik Kryvoi is the Senior Fellow in International Economic Law and Director of the Investment Treaty Forum. Prof Kryvoi's expertise is primarily in the areas of international dispute resolution, including investor-state arbitration and international commercial arbitration, international administrative law and international public law.  In addition to his role at the BIICL, he is a visiting professor at a London-based university and teaches arbitration at the Chartered Institute…


Kristin Hausler

Biography Kristin Hausler is the Dorset Senior Fellow and Director of the Centre for International Law. Since joining the Institute in 2007, she has developed and led several research projects on international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international criminal law, areas in which she also provides training at the Institute. Her most recent projects focused on cultural heritage  protection, in particular in situations of conflicts. Currently, she is leading…

Centre for International law+4

Jean-Pierre Gauci

Biography Dr. Jean-Pierre Gauci is Senior Research Fellow in Public International Law and Director of Teaching and Training at BIICL. Recruited in 2014 as a research coordinator for the British Influences on International Law Project, his role was extended to that of research fellow in August 2015 and associate senior research fellow in 2017. Jean-Pierre holds a PhD in Law from King's College London with research that focused on trafficking based asylum claims. He also holds a Doctor of Laws…

Climate Change+7

Julinda Beqiraj

Biography Dr. Julinda Beqiraj is the Maurice Wohl Senior Research Fellow in European Law. She works on a number of projects, including one on the role of the rule of law in the context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and one on barriers and solutions to access to justice across jurisdictions. She is also involved in the organization of Bingham Centre events on these issues. Julinda also works as an expert consultant for the Council of Europe, Commission on the Efficiency of Justice…

European Law+4

The effect of sanctions on investment arbitration

Illustration: Daily Mail These remarks were delivered at the 12th Investment Treaty Arbitration Conference organised by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic on 20 October 2022. Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the effect of sanctions on arbitration has become an increasingly important topic. Within weeks of the invasion, the European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Japan and other states imposed sweeping sanctions to support peace and the territorial integrity…


Economic Sanctions Against Russia and their Compatibility with WTO Law: Questions and Answers

1. What are the benefits and duties deriving from Russia's WTO membership? Russia became a WTO member in 2012. The Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause embodied in different WTO agreements (notably the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and others) entitles Russia, as a WTO member, to benefit from the same regulatory and tariff treatment accorded to products of other WTO members, regarding both imports and exports. Similarly, as regards services, under the General Agreement on Trade…

Investment and Trade+1

New article published by Guy Beringer in City A.M

Guy Beringer, Co-Chairman of the Bingham Development Board considers how the emergence of economic sanctions creates new challenges for government, business and the law. The emergence of economic sanctions as a potential deterrent weapon for dealing with rogue states gives rise to new challenges for government, business and the law. This will require new thinking and co-ordinated planning. It will also require better understanding of the rationale for rule of law principles in market economies.…

Comparative Law+3

Part 2: Responsible Exit from Russia: Business and Human Rights in a Global Governance Gap

This is a two-part blog series. In Part 1 Dr Irene Pietropaoli discusses whether foreign companies have a responsibility under international law to leave Russia. In Part 2, Dr. Irene Pietrapaoli and Dr. Daniel Aguirre discuss responsible exits from Russia. Hundreds of multinational companies have left Russia since the beginning of the invasion of Ukraine. While this voluntary divestment - most are not subject to sanctions - may be an effective economic weapon in response…

Business and Human Rights+3

Destruction of Ukrainian cultural heritage vis-a-vis military necessity and lasting peace

Almost four weeks into the Russian invasion, important Ukrainian heritage sites have suffered destruction or damage, including the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre and the Philharmonic in Kharkiv, as well as the museum of local history in Ivankiv, where the losses have included works by the celebrated Ukrainian folk artist, Maria Prymachenko. Plenty more is at risk, including Ukraine's seven World Heritage Sites designated pursuant to the World Heritage Convention (1972) and…

Cultural Heritage+2

Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine and International Law: Questions and Answers

Authors: Prof. Yarik Kryvoi (YK), Kristin Hausler (KH), Iris Anastasiadou (IA), Dr Jean-Pierre Gauci (JPG), Dr Noemi Magugliani (NM), Dr Irene Pietropaoli (IP), Dr Berenika Drazewska (BD) In the wake of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) has prepared a list of relevant questions and answers, which the general public may have. In addition to answers prepared by BIICL's experts in the relevant…

Business and Human Rights+4

Part 1: Do foreign companies have a responsibility under international law to leave Russia?

This is a two-part blog series. In Part 1 Dr Irene Pietropaoli discusses whether foreign companies have a responsibility under international law to leave Russia. In Part 2, Dr. Irene Pietrapaoli and Dr. Daniel Aguirre discuss responsible exits from Russia. Since Russia's invasion of Ukraine on 24th February, over 300 multinational companies have decided to leave Russia or suspend their operations there. Do they have an obligation under international law to do so? Foreign companies have…

Business and Human Rights+3

How does international law protect Ukrainian cultural heritage in war? Is it protected differently than other civilian objects?

In line with the principle of distinction, the cornerstone of international humanitarian law, attacks may only be directed against military objectives; thus, in principle, all civilian objects enjoy protection during hostilities. Objects and sites of cultural, religious or historical importance benefit from additional protection on the basis of treaty and customary international law. While the Geneva Conventions of 1949 do not include a specific provision for cultural property, Article 53 of…

Cultural Heritage+1
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