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Hector Tejero Tobed

Biography Héctor is a Research Assistant in Public International Law, and joined BIICL in October 2018. He assists and conducts research on various issues on Public International Law. Prior to joining BIICL, Héctor completed a LL.M in Public International Law at The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), and was a Legal Intern at REDRESS, where he focused on the Inter-American system for the protection of human rights. Formerly, he has been involved in cooperation projects…

Business and Human Rights+2

Yarik Kryvoi

Professor Yarik Kryvoi is the Senior Research Fellow in International Economic Law and Director of the Investment Treaty Forum. Prof Kryvoi's expertise is primarily in the areas of international dispute resolution, including investor-state arbitration and international commercial arbitration, international administrative law and international public law.  In addition to his role at the BIICL, he is a visiting professor at a London-based university and teaches arbitration at the Chartered…

Arbitration+4

Julinda Beqiraj

Biography Dr. Julinda Beqiraj is the Maurice Wohl Senior Research Fellow in European Law. She works on a number of projects, including one on the role of the rule of law in the context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and one on barriers and solutions to access to justice across jurisdictions. She is also involved in the organization of Bingham Centre events on these issues. Julinda also works as an expert consultant for the Council of Europe, Commission on the Efficiency of Justice…

European Law+3

Save the Date: Forum on Investor-State Mediation

EVENTS Save the Date: Forum on Investor-State Mediation Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location     Event Details On 11 December 2020, the Investment Treaty Forum of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law in cooperation with the ISDS Mediation Working Group are organising the Forum…

Arbitration+3

Thirty Fourth ITF Public Conference: State Regulatory Powers and Its Limits

EVENTS Thirty Fourth ITF Public Conference: State Regulatory Powers and Its Limits Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location    Event Details This online conference will address limits of state regulatory powers under international law. The speakers will include a mix of law firm partners, independent arbitrators,…

Investment / Trade

Recording: Government response to the pandemic: balancing public health and investment protection

RECORDING Government response to the pandemic: balancing public health and investment protection Event details As states face difficult choices to protect public health and keep their economies afloat, their treatment of foreign investors in this crisis is yet to be tested by investor-state tribunals. The pandemic led governments around the world to take unpopular and often unprecedented measures such as regulating prices and imposing export…

Arbitration+3

Recording: Termination of Intra-EU BITs: Legal and Government response to the pandemic

RECORDING Termination of Intra-EU BITs: Legal and Practical Consequences for Pending and Future Disputes Event details 23 Member States of the European Union signed on 5 May 2020 agreement for the termination of intra-EU bilateral investment treaties. This agreement implements the 2018 judgment of the European Court of Justice, in which the Court found that intra-EU BITs violate the EU Treaties. The termination agreement implements the March…

Arbitration+3

Virtual Justice in France, UK & US: Status & Challenges of Remote Hearings & Trials

WEBINAR Virtual Justice in France, UK & US: Status & Challenges of Remote Hearings & Trials Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Recording of the webinar Virtual Justice in France, UK & US: Status & Challenges of Remote Hearings & Trials Organised in partnership with: Event Details The…

Arbitration+6

COVID-19, Sino-US Trade War, and International Law Seminar

EVENTS COVID-19, Sino-US Trade War, and International Law Seminar Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Organised by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Supported By the British Institute of International and Comparative Law Event Details The Covid-19 health crisis has implicated discussions about the Sino-US…

BIICL Global+2

Termination of Intra-EU BITs: Legal and Practical Consequences for Pending and Future Disputes

On 5 May 2020, 23 EU Member States signed an agreement for the termination of intra-EU bilateral investment treaties between EU Members (Termination Agreement). The British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) hosted a webinar on 1 June 2020 to discuss legal and practical consequences of the Termination Agreement. The webinar featured presentations from representatives of the European Commission, an EU member state, academia and practitioners. This blog post summarizes…

Arbitration+2

Termination of Intra-EU BITs: Legal and Practical Consequences for Pending and Future Disputes

WEBINAR Termination of Intra-EU BITs: Legal and Practical Consequences for Pending and Future Disputes Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location  Media Partner Event details 23 Member States of the European Union signed on 5 May 2020 agreement for the termination of intra-EU bilateral investment treaties. This…

Arbitration+3

POSTPONED: The 2020 BIICL Annual WTO Conference

EVENTS POSTPONED: The 2020 BIICL Annual WTO Conference Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Sponsored by   Event Details The British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) is delighted to announce its prestigious WTO Conference. Established in 2000, the WTO Conference is one of the most…

Investment / Trade

Call for Papers: 29th Annual SLS/BIICL Workshop on Theory in International Law

CALL FOR PAPERS 29th Annual SLS/BIICL Workshop on Theory in International Law:  Celebrating the 'Historical Turn': International Law in Global Histories Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Organised in collaboration with the Society of Legal scholars       Event details Over the last two…

European Law+3

Sovereign Wealth Funds and Dispute Resolution

The project Sovereign Wealth Funds and Dispute Resolution focuses on quantitative and qualitative analysis of sovereign wealth funds' approaches to dispute resolution, including the use of international arbitration (commercial and investment treaty), recourse to domestic courts and issues of attribution and enforcement. At the first stage of the project, the research team will collect data in order to track the historic and current dispute resolution practices of sovereign wealth funds.…

Arbitration+2

Government response to the pandemic: balancing public health and investment protection

WEBINAR Government response to the pandemic: balancing public health and investment protection Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Media Sponsor Event details As states face difficult choices to protect public health and keep their economies afloat, their treatment of foreign investors in this crisis is yet…

Arbitration+3

New blog: EU Foreign Direct Investment Screening, Economic Crimes and ISDS

On 30 April 2020, I spoke at a webinar on the interaction between public international law and the EU Investment screening mechanism organised by Maastricht University and the University of Southern Denmark, which was a part of the Common European Law on Investment Screening (CELIS) project. In 2019, the European Union established a framework for the screening of foreign direct investments in Regulation 2019/452. This regulation comes into force the provisions of the Regulation are set to…

Investment / Trade

Force Majeure and Hardship in Commercial Contracts: Cross-border and Comparative Perspectives

WEBINAR Force Majeure and Hardship in Commercial Contracts: Cross-border and Comparative Perspectives Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location      Event Details The objective of this webinar is to examine the legal consequences of a party's inability to perform a contract due to events outside their…

Comparative Law+4

ISDS FAQ

International Investment Law and Dispute Resolution (Online Course)  Frequently Asked Questions There's no link to pay by card. I do not have a PayPal account, how can I pay? You do not need to have a PayPal account to pay. You can also pay by Visa, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express. Simply click on pay by PayPal button and then click on 'Pay by Debit or Credit Card'. You can pay by Visa, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express. I…

Investment / Trade

New Online Training Course on International Investment Law

Today BIICL begins offering a new online course in international investment law and dispute resolution The course developed by Professor Kryvoi,  Senior Research Fellow in International Economic Law and Director of the Investment Treaty Forum, will enable participants to understand the theory and practice of international investment law and dispute resolution. Participants will develop their own critical appreciation of history and nature of international investment law, the main substantive…

Investment / Trade

Online Course: International Investment Law and Dispute Resolution

International Investment Law and Dispute Resolution (Online Course) International Investment Law and Dispute Resolution (course trailer) Course details  This course covers the history and the rationale of protection of foreign direct investments, applicable law, the key principles of international investment law and investor-state dispute settlement. Total guided learning time: approximately 18 hours. The course is led by Professor Yarik Kryvoi. Professor…

Investment / Trade

Empirical Study: Corporate Restructuring and Investment Treaty Protections

BIICL and Baker McKenzie present the first comprehensive empirical study on corporate restructuring and investment treaty protections. The study examines all publicly available decisions of investor-state tribunals dealing with issues of corporate structuring and restructuring. Facilitating the consistency and correctness of decisions remains an important concern for states including with regards to divergent interpretations relating to jurisdiction and admissibility. The UNCITRAL working…

Arbitration+1

BIICL and Baker McKenzie Announce New Study

New Empirical Study: Corporate Restructuring and Investment Treaty Protections Today BIICL and Baker McKenzie published the first comprehensive empirical study on corporate restructuring and investment treaty protections. The study examines all publicly available decisions of investor-state tribunals dealing with issues of corporate structuring and restructuring. Facilitating the consistency and correctness of decisions remains an important concern for states including with regards to divergent…

Arbitration+1

Empirical Study: Corporate Restructuring and Investment Treaty Protections

BIICL and Baker McKenzie present the first comprehensive empirical study on corporate restructuring and investment treaty protections. The study examines all publicly available decisions of investor-state tribunals dealing with issues of corporate structuring and restructuring. Facilitating the consistency and correctness of decisions remains an important concern for states including with regards to divergent interpretations relating to jurisdiction and admissibility. The UNCITRAL working…

Arbitration+1

New Blog: The Future of the United Kingdom Investment Policy after Brexit

On 25 February 2020, BIICL convened an Investment Treaty Forum event to discuss the investment policy of the United Kingdom following its exit from the European Union. The UK is getting ready to deliver on the ambitious promise to conclude new trade agreements with various countries around the world. Although the European Union rules did not prevent the United Kingdom from concluding its own international investment agreements consistent with EU law, the British government preferred…

Courts / Tribunals+1

Foreign Investment Policy in Asia: Liberalization, Facilitation and Screening

EVENTS Foreign Investment Policy in Asia: Liberalization, Facilitation and Screening Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Co-organised in partnership with: Dhurakij Pundit University and Nagoya University  Event Details This event co-organised with Dhurakij Pundit University and Nagoya University will…

Arbitration+2

Corporate Restructuring: Managing Investment Risks through Treaty Protections

EVENTS Corporate Restructuring: Managing Investment Risks through Treaty Protections Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Co-organised in conjunction with Event details BIICL, in conjunction with Baker McKenzie, is delighted to present the first comprehensive empirical study on the permissibility of strategic…

Investment / Trade

UK Investment Protection Policy Post-Brexit

EVENTS UK Investment Protection Policy Post-Brexit Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Co-organised in partnership with Event details Following its official exit from the European Union on 31 January 2020, the UK is gearing up to launch an aggressive trade negotiation strategy with State partners around the…

Investment / Trade

The United Nations Convention against Corruption and International Investment Law

EVENTSed Nations Convention against Corruption and International Investment Law The United Nations Convention against Corruption and International Investment Law Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Co-organised in partnership with Event Details With over 180 State parties the United Nations Convention against…

Investment / Trade

New Security Threats and the Future of Economic Globalization

A multi-year project with the Graduate School of International Development of Nagoya University (Japan)  to explore New Security Threats and the Future of Economic Globalization. This inter-disciplinary (law and political science) research project funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  will explore the increasing tension between economic globalization and security issues. Share LinksProject - Tags It will examine whether the current trade…

Investment / Trade

BIICL to Explore New Security Threats and the Future of Economic Globalization

Today BIICL announced a new multi-year project with the Graduate School of International Development of Nagoya University (Japan) to explore New Security Threats and the Future of Economic Globalization. The inter-disciplinary (law and political science) research project funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  will explore the increasing tension between economic globalization and security issues. It will examine whether the current trade and investment liberalisation…

Investment / Trade

Blog: The interaction between investment disputes and human rights due diligence

On 4 December 2019, the newly-established Human Rights Due Diligence Forum of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law convened its first meeting. The topic was the interaction between investment disputes and human rights due diligence. The main focus of the meeting was on the implications of newly adopted or proposed laws on human rights due diligence. Such laws essentially place the responsibility of prevention of human rights violations on multinational enterprises,…

Business and Human Rights+1

2019 Empirical study: Provisional measures in investor‑state arbitration

BIICL and White & Case complete a research project on provisional measures in investment arbitration. On 27 November BIICL and White & Case presented the first comprehensive empirical study on provisional measures in investment treaty arbitration. The study examines over a hundred decisions and orders rendered by ICSID, UNCITRAL and other investor-state tribunals. It offers a unique insight into how international tribunals treat applications for provisional measures. Over the…

Arbitration+1

Short Course: Public International Law in Practice (November 2019)

EVENTS Short Course: Public International Law in Practice (November 2019) Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location    Event Details Short Course Public International Law in Practice offers a dynamic introduction into applied public international law from the British Institute of International and Comparative…

Arbitration+6

Blog: Counterclaims in investor-state disputes: time for the system to change?

At a packed BIICL event on 6 November 2020, we discussed counterclaims in investor-state disputes. DLA Piper and the Investment Treaty Forum brought together an excellent panel to discuss the complexities of asserting counterclaims, including jurisdictional, substantive and enforcement aspects of it: Michael Ostrove, David Herlihy, Alison Macdonald and Dainis Pudelis from the State Chancellery of the Republic of Latvia. Although I was not one of the event's main speakers, I have been…

Arbitration+1

Blog: Valuation of damages in investment disputes - conference takeaways

On 18 October 2019, we organised a conference on the valuation of damages in international investment law. This topic is far from being theoretical as slight differences in the methodology of calculation of damages can lead to giant differences in sums awarded. For example, in the controversial Tethyan v. Pakistan case earlier this year, Pakistan was ordered to pay nearly US$6 billion as compensation when one of its provinces denied a mining licence. The ICSID tribunal used a "modern…

Investment / Trade

Thirty Third ITF Public Conference: Valuation of Damages in International Investment Law

EVENTS Thirty Third ITF Public Conference: Valuation of Damages in International Investment Law Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Lunch sponsored by                                          Media Sponsor Event Details…

Investment / Trade

External Event: The London Conference on International Law

EVENTS External Event: The London Conference on International Law Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location    Event Details The London Conference on International Law will bring together international law academics, judges, practitioners, representatives of civil society, business-leaders, and other stakeholders to see how States…

International Law+1

Representing Interests of States in International Courts and Tribunals

EVENTS Representing Interests of States in International Courts and Tribunals Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location       Event Details This joint event of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and the Belarusian State University will focus on complexities of representing the…

Investment / Trade

ISDS@Singapore Public Conference: Dimensions of Legitimacy in Investor-State Dispute Settlement

EVENTS ISDS@Singapore Public Conference: Dimensions of Legitimacy in Investor-State Dispute Settlement Event - Tags Share Links Event - Timings and Location Event Details The landscape of investor-State dispute settlement is changing. In 2017, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law conferred a broad mandate on Working Group III to…

Investment / Trade

Assistance to States in Investment Treaty Matters

Assistance to States in Investment Treaty Matters The Investment Treaty Forum is pleased to facilitate assistance to States when reforming their domestic laws and international treaties, negotiating international agreements or when faced with an investment dispute. Given that the Forum has been established with a view to facilitating discussion amongst lawyers, policy advisers, academics, government officials and other specialist practitioners, it is in a strong position to assist…

Arbitration+1

ITF Debate on Regulatory Freedom and Indirect Expropriation in Investment Arbitration

Listen to the audio recording ITF Debate on Regulatory Freedom and Indirect Expropriation in Investment ArbitrationThis ITF meeting will feature a debate of the scope, relationship and method for delineating between regulatory freedom and indirect expropriation and ways for resolving this in practice - considering important issues such as the intent and effects of State actions. It will also include the launch of Dr Aniruddha Rajput's book entitled "Regulatory Freedom and Indirect Expropriation…

Investment / Trade

Thirty Second ITF Public Conference: State Responsibility in Investment Law

Time: 09:00-17:00 (Registration from 08:30) Venue: BMA House, Tavistock Square, Bloomsbury, London WC1H 9JP THIS EVENT IS NOW FULLY BOOKED The event will bring together arbitrators, leading practitioners and academics working in the area of international investment law to discuss issues related to State responsibility, including: circumstances precluding wrongfulness force majeure, distress and necessity fundamental change of circumstances attribution for the conduct of different branches of…

Investment / Trade

ITF Meeting: Renewing the Relationship between Treaties and Customary International Law

Time: 18.00-19.30 (Registration from 17.30) Event followed by a drinks reception Venue: Withers LLP, 20 Old Bailey, London EC4M 7AN    View the photographs of the event Listen to the audio recording  Podcast: Renewing the Relationship between Treaties and Customary International Law    BIICL Investment Treaty Forum in cooperation with Withers is organising a seminar on the relationship between treaties and custom in international investment law. This event will bring together…

Investment / Trade

ITF Meeting: Annulment in International Investment Law

Time: 18.00-20.30 (Registration from 17.30) Event followed by a drinks reception Venue: Baker Botts LLP, 41 Lothbury, London EC4M 7AN    View the photographs from the event Listen to the audio recording Audio Recording 020619:Annulment in International Investment Law BIICL Investment Treaty Forum in cooperation with Baker Botts is organising a seminar on the law governing the annulment of arbitral awards in international investment law. This event will bring together leading…

Arbitration+1

The Path of Investor-State Disputes: From Compensation Commissions to Arbitral Institutions

The Path of Investor-State Disputes: From Compensation Commissions to Arbitral Institutions ICSID Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp. 743-765 (2018) Publication - Download PDF Share Links Publication - Tags

Arbitration+1

Trade (Law) in an Age of Trump and Brexit

Time: 17:30-19:00 (Registration from 17:00) Event followed by a drinks reception Venue: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, Charles Clore House, 17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5JP This event will analyse the implications of Brexit and the Trump Administration on international trade law. Building on speakers' expertise, the panel will examine questions such as the future UK trade relationship with the EU and third states, the US-China 'trade wars' and the practical implications…

BREXIT+1

ICSID Arbitration Reform: Mapping Concerns of Users and How to Address Them

ICSID Arbitration Reform: Mapping Concerns of Users and How to Address Them This paper summarises key practical concerns of some members of the Investment Treaty Forum related to ICSID arbitration, as well as a wider community of experts, how the ICSID reform proposals address these concerns and makes suggestions for further improvement. The paper looks at key concerns of ICSID arbitration users such as timely appointment of arbitrators and challenges to it, over-committed arbitrators…

Arbitration+1

Investment Promotion and Protection in the Canada-UK Trade Relationship

A new investment agreement between Canada and the UK constitutes a crucial opportunity to include innovative provisions from recent international agreements and to explore new possibilities to construct a more legitimate regime. In order to support evidence-based decision-making in the negotiation of such an agreement, a comprehensive review of the range of opportunities must be provided. What are the provisions that can be included in an investment agreement between the two states to…

Arbitration+1

ICSID-SIA-BIICL Conference on Proposed Revision of ICSID Rules

Time: 09:15-16:05 (Registration from 08:45) Venue: One Birdcage Walk, Westminster, London, SW1H 9JJ On 13 November 2018, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), the School of International Arbitration (SIA) of Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) are organising a full-day conference to discuss the proposed revision of ICSID Arbitration Rules. The conference will gather in London representatives…

Investment / Trade

Blog: ICSID Arbitration Reform: Mapping Concerns of Users and How to Address Them

ICSID Arbitration Reform: Mapping Concerns of Users and How to Address Them Blog featured in the Kluwer Arbitration Blog Read the blog  

Arbitration+1

Legitimate Expectations in International Investment Law

Time: 17:30-19:00 (Registration from 17:00) Venue: International Energy Charter, Boulevard de la Woluwe B-1200 Brussels, Belgium     Listen to the audio recording   Legitimate Expectations in International Investment Law - podcastOn 8 November 2018, the BIICL Investment Treaty Forum and the Energy Charter Secretariat, are hosting a roundtable in Brussels, to discuss the application of the legitimate expectations concept in international investment law. The rapid proliferation…

Investment / Trade

Thirty First ITF Public Conference: Human Rights in International Investment Law

Time: 09:00-17:00 (Registration from 08:30) Venue: The British Academy, 10-11 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AH As international investment tribunals increasingly confront non-investment obligations, academics and practitioners in the field of international investment law find it challenging to understand the legal and ethical responsibilities of foreign investments in the area of human rights. Investment tribunals typically do not include experts on international human rights law. Moreover,…

Investment / Trade

Blog: Bribery, Corruption, and Fraud in Investor-State Disputes

Blog: Bribery, Corruption, and Fraud in Investor-State Disputes: How Should Tribunals Approach Economic Crimes? Blog featured in the Kluwer Arbitration Blog Read More 

Arbitration+1

Economic Crimes in International Investment Law

Economic Crimes in International Investment Law The protection of foreign investment by treaties often clashes with the State's sovereign right to investigate economic crimes committed by investors. This article examines the different approaches taken by tribunals to questions concerning admissibility and jurisdiction, applicable law, the standard of review, the burden and standard of proof and deference to actions taken by domestic courts and regulators related to economic crimes. It…

Arbitration+1

Blog: Arbitration in the CIS Region: from Soviet Roots to Modern Arbitration Laws

Arbitration in the CIS Region: from Soviet Roots to Modern Arbitration Laws Blog featuredin the Kluwer Arbitration Blog Read the blog 

Arbitration+1

Law and Practice of International Arbitration in the CIS Region

Law and Practice of International Arbitration in the CIS Region Edited by Kaj Hober & Yarik Kryvoi Law and Practice of International Arbitration in the CIS Region offers the first comprehensive overview of commercial arbitration in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region. After the collapse of the Soviet Union over a dozen new states emerged with their individual systems of international commercial arbitration. Today, the former Soviet republics such as Russia, Ukraine,…

Arbitration+1

Brexit, China and Other New Challenges to International Trade Law

Time: Venue: Panels: Panel 1: UK-EU Trade Relationship after Brexit Panel 3: From Multilateralism to Bilateralism? New Trends in International Trade Treaty Making Confirmed Speakers: Sir Frank Berman KCMG QC, Essex Court Chambers Prof Ming Du, University of Surrey Dr Markus Gehring, British Institute of International and Comparative Law Lode van den Hende, Herbert Smith Freehills Prof Sir Francis Jacobs, Kings College London Prof Yarik Kryvoi, British Institute of International and…

Investment / Trade

Trade and Investment post Brexit

THIS EVENT IS NOW FULLY BOOKED Time Venue: Professor David Collins, The City Law School, City University London Sir Daniel Bethlehem KCMG QC, 20 Essex Street Iain Maxwell, Herbert Smith Freehills Thomas Sebastian, Monckton Chambers Chair: Iain Maxwell Jiries Saadeh, Fietta Bernhard Maier, DLA Piper This event has been convened by Dr Eva Lein event flyer CPD hours have been applied for eventsregistration@biicl.org events team Carmel Brown Cancellation by us Cancellation…

Investment / Trade

Blog: Enforcement of Settlement Agreements Reached in Arbitration and Mediation

Enforcement of Settlement Agreements Reached in Arbitration and Mediation, 25 November 2015 Blog featured in the Kluwer Arbitration Blog Read the Blog 

Arbitration+1

International Economic Agreements and the Rule of Law - the case of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

THIS EVENT IS NOW FULLY BOOKED Time: Venue: Rule of Law and Accountability in the negotiation of economic agreements - what is the role of parliaments in overseeing TTIP, and what kind of national accountability mechanisms are in place? What redress mechanisms are built-in within these agreements generally, and how do these relate/not to the rule of law? Costs and benefits, winners and losers, and implications for the UK. Panellists Ruth Bergan, Coordinator, The Trade Justice Movement…

Investment / Trade

Consent Awards in International Arbitration: From Settlement to Enforcement

Consent Awards in International Arbitration: From Settlement to Enforcement Y. Kryvoi, The British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) Dmitry Davydenko, Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law Although over a third of all arbitration proceedings result in settlement agreements very little has been written on the legal status of consent awards in international arbitration. Drawing on comparative analysis of procedural rules and practice of…

Arbitration+1
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