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The Netherlands

Author: Ianika Tzankova/ Eric Tjong Tjin Tai - with support from Karlijn van Doorn

IV. Legislation

A. General

Collective settlements

Wet Collective afwikkeling massaschade (WCAM), implemented in:

- Code of Civil Procedure art. 1013-1018 (Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering, BRv) Click here

- Civil Code art. 7:907-910 (BW) Click here

For an English translation of the text of the WCAM see The Dutch 'Class Action (Financial Settlement) Act' ('WCAM'), official brochure, Click here

Collective action

- Civil Code art. 3:305a-305d (Burgerlijk Wetboek, BW) Click here

Group mandate/claim transfer

- Civil Code art. 7:423 BW Click here

B. Sectoral

1. Consumer Law

- Directive 98/27/EC on injunctions for the protection of consumers' interests.

- Collective action regarding consumer protection rules: art. 3 :305d BW Click here

- Onderdeel a Bijlage bij Wet handhaving consumentenbescherming (Annex to Law on enforcement of consumer protection) Click here

- Rules on e-commerce : art. 3: 15a-15c, 15f BW Click here and

art. 6:196c, 227a-227c BW Click here

- Rules on unfair trading practices: art. 6:193a-193i BW,

unfair contract terms: art. 6:231-235, 237-247 BW Click here

- Rules regarding consumer sales: 7:5, 6, 6a, 17-19, 21-23, 25 BW,

distance contracts: 7:46a, 46b, 46d-46g, 46i, 46j BW,

regarding timeshare and holidays: 7:50a, 50d-50i BW,

regarding package travel: art. 7: 500, 503-513 BW Click here

2. Competition Law

No specific legislation for collective redress exists; the relevant legislation for competition law is de Mededingingswet (Code of competition law Click here) as well as the general article on tort law (art. 6:162 BW).

3.Financial Market Law

No specific legislation for collective redress regarding financial markets exists. Material rules are to be found in the Wet financieel toezicht (Wft, Law on financial supervision Click here) and lower regulations, in particular the Besluit Gedragstoezicht financiële ondernemingen Wft, Click here .

Furthermore art. 6:193a-j BW and 6:194 BW (unfair trading practices regarding consumers and misleading commercial information professionals) may be applicable in cases of liability for a misleading prospectus.

For collective redress the aforementioned general mechanisms are used.

4.Product Liability

No specific legislation for collective redress exists; the relevant material legislation is art. 6:185-193 BW Click here.

5.Other areas

5.1. Equality Law

No specific legislation exists; the relevant material legislation is art. 1 Grondwet (Constitution) laying down the rule of equal treatment. Furthermore, fundamental rights treaties are applicable (ECHR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights).

5.2. Environmental Law

No specific legislation exists; the relevant material legislation is the general article on non-contractual liability (art. 6:162 BW) as well as particular environment-related torts (art. 6:173-177 BW), besides the article on prevention of damage (art. 6:184 BW).

5.3. Labour Law

Art. 15 Wet op de collectieve arbeidsovereenkomst (Law on collective labour agreements, Click here) stipulates that an organisation that has entered into a collective labour agreement can, in case of another party or its members acts in violation of obligations from that agreement, claim damages for the organisation as well as damages for its members. Art. 16 adds that immaterial damages can also be recovered, albeit at an amount to determine ex aequo (naar billijkheid).